laboratory india

India’s Mumbai Ranks High in Global List of Cities w/ High Levels of Traffic Congestion

In a 2019 global study focused on evaluating the degree of traffic congestions in 53 countries, India’s Mumbai was found to have the worst traffic situation. The related TomTom Traffic Index report disclosed that Mumbai’s traffic conditions have been making it necessary for commuters to increase their travel time by at least 65% due to high levels of congestion.

India’s capital Delhi, fared better than Mumbai, but still ranked as the 4th city on a global scale, to have the highest levels of traffic. Delhi commuters have to increase travel time by at least 58% if they want to arrive on time at their destinations.

According to Ralf-Peter Schaefer, the Vice Pres. of Information at Tom Tom, traffic levels had actually increased on a global scale. Although it’s a positive indicator that the global economy has been going strong, it also translates into negative impacts. Commuters, particularly drivers, are wasting time sitting out hours in traffic, while vehicles are continuously producing emissions harmful to the environment.

Factors Driving the High Levels of Traffic in Mumbai

Mumbai Police Chief Datta Padsalgikar had mentioned before in a separate statement that one of the reasons why traffic is hard to handle in Mumbai is because about 31 lakh or 310, 000 vehicles occupy city spaces measuring only 438 square kilometers.

The Tom Tom Traffic Index report cited that among the factors that have been driving high levels of traffic in Mumbai are the heavy rains and crowds. People are wary of the city’s crumbling infrastructure, as what had happened when the CST bridge collapsed during heavy traffic hours in which 6 people died while 31 were injured. Additionally, subsequent audits resulted in the closure of about 29 bridges that have been deemed as no longer structurally safe.

Another major problem are the city’s road potholes. A local website has been tracking the number of potholes in Mumbai’s roads, which at the time of the report had already tallied 27,412 potholes.

According to the Asian Development Bank, India needs as much as $112 billion annually in order to meet its target in infrastructure developments. The lack of funds and structures dating as far back as the colonial era have in fact made Mumbai a dangerous city.

While the current thrust is to have commuters use metro rail transits to reduce the size of the crowds causing traffic congestions, the construction of new Metro Lines have likewise resulted to major traffic problems.

The observation is that India also lacks sustainable urban transport policies aimed at addressing simple traffic problems such as illegal parking and in putting a cap to the issuance of licenses for cab operations. Towing illegally parked cars will create greater traffic problems, as towing of vehicles will only cause more congestion.

California Tops List of U.S. Cities With High Traffic Levels

In the U.S. the city of Los Angeles is at the top of the 50 U.S. cities with the worst traffic congestions. In fact, several other cities in California are included in the list namely, Bakersfield, Fresno, Oxnard, Riverside, Sacramento, San Diego, San Jose, Thousand Oaks and Ventura.

The City of San Jose ranks 4th, as traffic congestions are largely attributed to the high number of parked cars and abandoned vehicles sitting on public roads. That is why San Jose’s Code Enforcement Agency has given accreditation to several companies engaged in towing san jose vehicles to help in road clearing operations.

The Evolution of Dry and Wet Sanding as Science-Based Finishing Techniques

Sanding is an ancient process of smoothing surfaces, believed to have originated in 13th century China using mainly crushed seashells as abrasive materials. While seemingly a simple technology, the development of sandpaper involved scientific studies that proved sanding as a technique that is vital to achieving the standards of professionally done wood or metal finishes.

3M for one did not stop at developing sandpaper for dry-sanding surface materials but went on to develop sandpaper for wet sanding. Through scientific study on how sanding can achieve not only smoothness of surface but also enable wood and metal attain a mirror-like glossy finish.

As the wet sanding process became popular among guitar makers and automobile manufacturers, 3M made further improvements. In as early as 1916, 3M produced waterproof, Wet-Dry sandpapers that allow alternate use for dry and wet sanding processes.

Wet sanding as a process also received support from makers of power tools, to which the latest technological innovation are the random orbital sanders. Aside from making dry and wet sanding processes easier to accomplish, random orbital sanders for both dry and wet sanding perfected the science of achieving ultra-smooth finish that further enhanced the glass-like quality produced by clear coating.

Random orbital sanders for both dry and wet sanding also come with wet-dry sanding discs, while having an inlet for water to flow by wa of a plastic tubing. Alternating from dry to wet sanding therefore has never been easier, whilst achieving impeccable smoothness that only a random orbital sander can achieve.

The Science Behind Random Orbital Sanders

While wet and dry sanding can be performed manually or by using a sanding block, a random orbital sander works scientifically by avoiding repetitive rubbing of abrasive materials on deep scratches and hardened paint materials. This power tool will instead change the direction of its circular sanding motion and work around the affected area to avoid deepening the scratch or to prevent the hardened paint particle from creating additional scratches.

Wet sanding after dry sanding creates an even smoother finish because the after a thick coating of sealant and paint, wet sanding can further remove blemishes and other imperfections without damaging the paint coating itself. That way the clear coat used as protection against UV rays will be applied on a super smooth surface, which will come out satiny-looking, whilst achieving a glass-like effect.

At the Bob Smith Tools website, readers will find a comprehensive review of different brands of random orbital sanders specifically designed for wet and dry sanding; along with related information about compatible wet and dry sanding discs.