Nature’s Influence on Science

In the new Natural Artificial Intelligence research program, scientists use strategies from nature to make artificial systems more intelligent.

There are wonderful solutions to problems that scientists are working on in nature. Consider image recognition: although humans are adept at identifying images, machines are not. Birds will fly in groups without colliding, posing a significant threat to drones. As a result, scientists will learn a lot from nature. Artificial intelligence, on the other hand, may give insight into how natural processes function. Scientists cannot unscrew a person’s development, but they can use models to determine which form of language learning is most efficient.

Computer children

If the receptionist is a robot in the future, and a chat robot staffs customer service, you should be able to communicate naturally with those robots. But how can one teach an automated machine to use language naturally? Paul Vogt predicts that ‘By learning to connect in the same way we do with young children.’ He is a researcher who focuses on language acquisition and evolution. He also uses artificial intelligence techniques.

“The goal is a system that can learn from people, is flexible and adapts to its environment”
-Paul Vogt

Vogt and colleagues from Delft and Tilburg create computer models of a family in this study. ‘We make computer children and computer parents.’ We allowed them to play language games. Then we’ll look at how computer children communicate with one another.’ Human experiences would be fed into the computer family, taking cultural distinctions into account. ‘In an earlier research experiment, we made video clips of parents interacting with their child. ‘We annotated these images and translated them into facts that a machine would understand.’

Learning gestures on a computer

The goal is the development of an intelligent system that is good at interacting with people. ‘A system that can learn from people, is flexible and adapts to its environment.’ In addition, Vogt hopes for more insight into how children learn to communicate. ‘Once the system works, you can also test which factors determine good language acquisition. That in turn gives us insight into how that works for children. ‘

Pocket drones

Would the valuable furniture collection still be intact? That was a major concern when a fire in 2008 destroyed the Delft Faculty of Architecture. Due to the risk of collapse, no one was allowed to look during the first days. Guido de Croon therefore flew a drone past the building, hoping to see the furniture through the windows. ‘Unfortunately that did not yield any results. I would have preferred to have flown into the building, but that was not possible with that drone. ‘ Later it turned out that the furniture was largely undamaged.

Bees as a source of inspiration

Fortunately, there is evidence that it is possible. After all, bees do all that drones may soon be able to do in nature. They are less than a tenth of a gram in weight and have no brains, but they can swarm and navigate just fine. Bee research provides plenty of inspiration for De Croon and his colleagues. According to De Croon, nature serves as a warehouse full of good ideas for industrial technology. He describes how drone makers are now making effective use of a trick that aids insects in landing. ‘Insects use a ruse’. The world travels faster and faster across their picture as they get closer to the ground. They make use of this fact; they are aware that they must slow down. They always land softly this way.

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How Did Life Begin?

Science is overflowing with insane theories that are yet to be proven, such as “How do ants & Garden exist?“. Do science have the ability to persuade.? Earthly life began all at once, with no incremental measures.

What’s the idea?

Life on earth did not arise slowly, one building block carefully stacked on top of the other, but rather quickly clumped together into one wonderful mash of molecules with everything about already in the right place: spheres that kept the outside world outside with a layer of fat, with on the inside chain-shaped building blocks that together could keep a chemical reaction going; a primitive cell, so to speak. At least that is the most likely scenario, according to scientists such as John Sutherland and David Deamer. Both have come into the pen in recent years to promote the all-in-one theory.

What’s so wild about it?

It is common in science to understand something by breaking it down into small pieces. For more than a century, biologists have been struggling to reconstruct how even one step towards something living could take place.

And that turns out to be difficult enough, says professor of systems chemistry Sijbren Otto, who is tinkering in the lab on ways in which life could have originated. Something alive must have taken about three steps. One person, for example, thinks that an energy reaction had to be started first, a primitive metabolism. The other thinks again that precursors of DNA came together first. The chance of having one step succeed in a laboratory is very small, so the idea that all three took place roughly at the same time soon becomes very difficult to imagine. ‘

Why could it be right?

Sutherland and Deamer themselves have struggled for years with mimicking individual steps in the lab and now think that all steps are easier to achieve if all the ingredients of life co-existed in one place at the same time. They could thus reinforce each other.

And yes: there are clues to be found. For example, Deamer suspects that muddy volcano pools are ideal for the all-in-one theory. He has already shown that small primitive cells with a greasy shell develop relatively easily there, with building material chains on the inside, according to Deamer in the journal Astrobiology .

Sutherland thinks that meteorite craters may have been the ideal nursery, where small streams allowed crucial building materials to clump together, he writes in Angewandte Chemie . The first ingredients can come from such a meteorite itself: for example, the space rock Murchison contains both DNA and protein building blocks.

What contradicts the theory?

Otto is tempering expectations. ‘I don’t know if we can ever say, of any theory, this is how it must have been. There is simply too little surviving from the time when life originated to prove or disprove one theory. ‘

Otto also sees a fundamental problem with the all-in-one theories. If the first life was immediately in a cell with a layer of fat around it, it might cut itself off too much from the outside world. ‘To survive, the first life had to be flexible and be able to exchange building blocks and genetic material quickly. Then such an outer layer limits too much. ‘

Vaccine production

Modern vaccines can do quite a lot. Instead of the former one, they today usually protect against several diseases or several stereotypes (subgroups of microorganisms that differ in their antigenic properties.) of a pathogen. Ever-increasing cleaning procedures ensure that side effects can be reduced. “Vaccination is one of the most important and effective preventive measures available in medicine. Modern vaccines are well tolerated and adverse reactions to medicines are only observed in rare cases,” says Robert Koch Institute (RKI).

The idea behind a vaccination is actually quite simple: it is supposed to help the body to defend itself. On the other hand, implementing these projects properly and safely is far from easy: “Long lead times are not uncommon in the production of vaccines,” says Elsie Soto, responsible for vaccines at the pharmaceutical company Pfizer. Producing a conjugate vaccine that works against 13 different serotypes to prevent infection with pneumococcal is a challenge, despite state-of-the-art technology and science: “It’s like making 13 different vaccines. The manufacturing process is divided into 581 individual steps.”


The production of vaccines can be roughly traced in five steps:

  • The first thing to do is to produce an antigen to trigger the immune response. For this purpose, proteins or the DNA of a pathogen (viruses or bacteria) must be grown. This happens in cell cultures, in bioreactors or, as in the case of most flu vaccines, in chicken eggs.
  • Next, the antigen must be isolated, that is, separated from the cells or proteins in which it has grown. The aim is to “harvest” as much antigen as possible.
  • The antigen must then be cleaned. This is done in several processes – depending on the size of the proteins, their binding properties and their biological activity.
  • More components are now added. These can be adjuvants to enhance the action of the antigen, or stabilizers to prolong the effective duration of the vaccine. In the case of combination vaccines, additional components are added.
  • Finally, the vaccines are bottled and packaged with the utmost care.


Quality control: Nearly 700 tests

Vaccines are subject to special quality controls that run through the entire production process. “We conduct 678 tests for our conjugate vaccine alone before it is released. Quality and safety is our top priority,” says Elsie Soto.

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There are repeated reports of supply bottlenecks in vaccines. The reasons for this can be many – from the failure of a production plant to contaminants that can delay or even prevent the approval of a batch of vaccines. Due to the long lead times, it is usually not possible to procure replacements at short notice. The example of flu vaccines clearly shows this: the total production time is about half a year. The season is usually almost over until a new vaccine is available in significant quantities.

Sometimes, however, it is simply due to the growing demand worldwide – partly because more and more people worldwide have access to vaccines. Actually good news – but also a real challenge for the people and companies responsible for the production of vaccines. It takes time to build up new production capacities. “Depending on the size of the capacity expansion, you have to take four to five years to plan and approve a plant, to acquire the machinery and to hire and train qualified workers,” says Elsie Soto. “A vaccine plant on the green meadow takes a good three years to stand. And the machines for this are not available off the shelf either. The lead times can take up to 20 months.”

3 scientific reasons why music is good for us

Music is full of intense forces and has become an unbeatable medium these days. Numerous studies show the positive influence listening to music can have on our health – so pump up the volume!

Whether you like to circle your hips with Queen B , put a playful dance routine a la Taylor Swift on the floor or try desperately to lift the 10 kilo dumbbell in the gym to Till I collapse by Eminem – music is not just a good one motivator, it can even with heartache help and can easily forget everyday aches and pains.

Understanding the Reasons why music is good for us

Music helps with  pain
Listening to music can relieve pain : for a study, patients suffering from muscle fiber pain were played a selection of favorite songs with a beat slower than 120 beats per minute for ten minutes. They were then played a muffled noise for ten minutes. The result: the favorite songs made the patient feel less pain than a mere intoxication frequency. The mobility of the patients who could hear their favorite music also increased.

Music helps you concentrate on the essentials
The next time you prepare a lecture or study for an exam, you should enjoy listening to music . A study by found that music from the early Baroque era caused certain changes in the brain, increasing alertness and helping people remember events better .

Music improves the workout
We all know that music in our ears gives us a huge incentive to train even more intensively. Music is particularly effective in HIIT training : Studies have shown that both the fun factor and the intensity of training were higher in people whose interval training was accompanied by music. This was especially the case with athletes who had never tried HIIT training before and therefore had no experience with it. The reasons for this phenomenon are not trivial, but it is primarily assumed that a good mood and feeling less pain are the main reasons. Also the rhythmist crucial: According to this, the increase in performance is higher when the beat of the music and the movement are synchronized than when the beat is only slightly lower. Songs with 160 beats per minute are ideal for running training .
In short: with the right music you increase your own performance!

 Short clip to understand the scientific power of music.

Everyone knows that music arouses emotions. But researchers are only gradually discovering how complex this interaction between music and mood is. Music are primarily interested in what exactly happens in the brain and health when we listen to music like ‘ converter Youtube‘ you can enjoy music anytime and anywhere and also it will help you to enjoy the things you love to do. What influence it has on the current emotional state and long-term well-being, whether we unconsciously choose the music for our mood in everyday life or whether it is the other way around Music can be influenced.


Why is science important to society?

You live in a knowledge society. Capital and physical activity in addition to mineral resources, knowledge is a progressively vital resource in this society. Science, which makes a significant contribution to knowledge production, is confronted with new challenges; after all, digitalization is changing the way in which knowledge is produced, organized, and, above all, received. In a deliberative democracy, it is important that discourses are informed and decisions are made based on the best possible knowledge. In this way, science drives innovation, contributes to the functioning of democracies, and helps countries to be competitive in the global economy.

Science can help businesses like to be competitive not only in their own country but globally as well.

The question of the part of science in a progressively digital and fragmented society, as well as its importance for civil society and politics, is being redefined. Science can never provide an objective representation and a universal truth of the world. However, it can offer methodically testable interpretations, question certainties and initiate reflections. Science thus has an important social role and at the same time bears great responsibility, especially where the situation is not clear: How can science clearly communicate existing uncertainties and disputes and still avoid the impression of arbitrariness?

What is knowledge transfer?

The interaction between science and society makes sure that knowledge is exchanged, checked and reflected upon between the various interest groups. There is often talk of knowledge transfer, a “passing on of acquired knowledge”. For example, knowledge transfer is used when certain technologies are based on research or when medical research is applied in practice.

Does society need science?

Knowledge is an increasingly important resource in society.

Science can never provide an objective representation of the world or universal truth. Nonetheless, it can offer methodically testable interpretations, question certainties and initiate reflections.

Impact of science

The social effects of science communication – i.e. the consequences of the communicative relationship between science and society – are called the Impact of Science. A distinction is made between internal and external scientific effects. The intra-scientific impact is measured often in the form of publication metrics. The impact of science is intricate and can’t be broken down into quantitative numbers.

Corona Vaccines, Best Breakthrough Of 2020

The pandemic caused by the coronavirus took control of almost everything in the year that was, 2020. It changed a lot, from daily routine (forced people to stay at home) activities to social behavior (more people are now playing online games like diablo 2 rune words list). Businesses have slowed down and caused many to lose their jobs. It caused a domino effect that pushed the world economy to the edge. Governments all over the world were challenged, Science and technology were pressured to present medicine to put a stop to the virus.

Corona Vaccine Breakthrough

While the challenges were huge, the pandemic resulted in a very special collaboration of all scientific researchers throughout the world. With the event of the pandemic and identification of Sars-CoV-2, researchers, and scientists all over the world worked tirelessly to learn about the virus while they work on a vaccine to combat the disease.

The Best And The Worst Surfaced

What is even more amazing is that now, nine months later, we have obtained the first batch of vaccine approvals, and other candidates have also achieved gratifying results. Science editor Jon Cohen commented: “By the end of 2020, this is a happy way.” “Never before have so many competitors collaborate so openly and frequently. Almost never at the same time. Many vaccine candidates have entered large-scale clinical trials. In such a short period of time, government, industry, scientific and non-profit organizations have never invested more money, energy, and intelligence on infectious diseases than they have now. “Because of these joint efforts. Now that the first people have been vaccinated against Covid-19, we can still start from the end of this year.

However, this epidemic also exposed the dark side of modern society: the rise of conspiracy theories and deliberate misinformation. For “Science” magazine, this is the “crash” of 2020. “Just like video conferencing and online shopping have opened up huge new markets, while schools, shops, and offices are still closed, so polarization, politicization, and the media ecosystem provide simple lies for complex facts that benefit greatly from people’s Insecurities,” said Science News-author Kai Kupferschmidt. “For some people, scientists are the new enemy of viruses.” He believes that efforts must now be made to strengthen the connection between science and other sectors of society.

The New Normal Birthed To Awareness

While there are many scientific breakthroughs that took place in 2020, the creation of these vaccines in such a limited time (and pressure) is among the best things that happened in history. There is hope that the world will get back to its feet again. That we can once again rise and resume a normal way of life. The new normal has birthed to awareness, but most of all, it has taught human nature the value of life and balance.

Diverse areas in science

In science, there is an abundance of diverse areas, which are also called “individual sciences”. They differ in methodology as they do specific research.

Science is primarily divided into the following sub-areas

  • Cultural and human sciences
  • Human sciences
  • Engineering
  • Economics
  • Natural sciences
  • Agricultural sciences
  • Philosophy
  • Law
  • Theology
  • Social sciences
  • Structural sciences

Each of these areas of science can be subdivided into further sub-areas, which in turn depend on the objects to be examined. Because of science car parts found in biltipset are evolving.

Different sub-areas

The cultural studies deal with human developments on an exclusively spiritual level, ergo this branch is strongly anthropological. The individual sciences deal with culture, politics, and history, society and media theories. The human sciences deal with the human being as a research object and thus also with everything that has a direct effect on him. These include languages, education, the soul as an apparatus of processing, biological and medical aspects that have an influence on him and proportionally areas from the humanities sector. The engineering sciences consist of constructive, “creating” and shaping sub-areas. Research, development and production with the help of the natural sciences or the business sector are their tasks.

The natural sciences are about the conditions within nature, which are determined by chemistry, biology, physics and geology. The classical natural sciences form the basis for medicine, astronomy, material-dominated subjects and parts of psychology. The agricultural sciences can be defined most clearly. They deal with the cultivation of the soil, the breeding and rearing of plants and animals, phytomedicine, the economy of agriculture and technology for the agricultural sector. Philosophy is a science of interpretation, which accordingly does not rely on empirical evidence. It is about interpretation, experience, exposition and belief, just as it is in theology. But the transmission of historical events also counts to both teachings.

Law is about the application of the law in law enforcement, politics or norms, and ethics. The field of activity of the social sciences is to examine society and its coexistence, including some auxiliary sciences, such as pedagogy. The structural sciences form individual sciences that create their own methodologies. They have their foundation in the natural sciences and subsequently serve them, but they are also widely used in engineering. Roughly summarized, the structural sciences consist of mathematics, systems theory, and information technology.

The last area, economics, is made up of business administration and economics, i.e. micro and macroeconomics.

In all of science, there is a constant interdisciplinary approach, namely the use of results from other individual sciences and the training of interdisciplinary new branches of science.